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Category: Brain and Cognition

Converging operations and the role of perceptual and decisional influences on the perception of faces: Neural and behavioral evidence

Published in: Brain and Cognition, Volume 122, April 2018, 59-75 Abstract “Theoretical analyses suggest that the regularities indicative of holistic processing can be obtained by combinations of perceptual and decisional factors. Kuefner and colleagues used electrophysiological results to suggest that the composite face effect is driven solely by perceptual factors. Two limitations of their approach are (a) it did not involve behavioral measures of perceptual sensitivity or bias, and (b) it is unclear how the measures used in that study are consistent with other measures of perceptual and decisional processing. Eight observers completed three tasks involving the stimuli used by Kuefner… Read More

Task-residual functional connectivity of language and attention networks

Published in: Brain and Cognition, Volume 122, April 2018, 52-58 Abstract “Functional connectivity using task-residual data capitalizes on remaining variance after mean task-related signal is removed from a time series. The degree of network specificity in language and attention domains featured by task-residual and resting-state data types were compared. Functional connectivity based on task-residual data evidenced stronger laterality of the language and attention connections and thus greater network specificity compared to resting-state functional connectivity of the same connections. Covariance between network nodes of task-residuals may thus reflect the degree to which two regions are coordinated in their specific activity, rather than… Read More

Prefrontal cortex activation during obstacle negotiation: What’s the effect size and timing?

Published in: Brain and Cognition, Volume 122, April 2018, 45-51 Abstract “Background Obstacle negotiation is a daily activity that requires the integration of sensorimotor and cognitive information. Recent studies provide evidence for the important role of prefrontal cortex during obstacle negotiation. We aimed to explore the effects of obstacle height and available response time on prefrontal activation. Methods Twenty healthy young adults (age: 30.1 ± 1.0 years; 50% women) walked in an obstacle course while negotiating anticipated and unanticipated obstacles at heights of 50 mm and 100 mm. Prefrontal activation was measured using a functional near-infrared spectroscopy system. Kinect cameras measured the obstacle negotiation strategy. Prefrontal… Read More

More far is more right: Manual and ocular line bisections, but not the Judd illusion, depend on radial space

Published in: Brain and Cognition, Volume 122, April 2018, 34-43 Abstract “Line bisection studies generally find a left-to-right shift in bisection bias with increasing distance between the observer and the target line, which may be explained by hemispheric differences in the processing of proximo-distal information. In the present study, the segregation between near and far space was further characterized across the motor system and contextual cues. To this aim, 20 right-handed participants were required to perform a manual bisection task of simple lines presented at three different distances (60, 90, 120 cm). Importantly, the horizontal spatial location of the line was manipulated… Read More

Reduced inter-hemispheric interference in ageing: Evidence from a divided field Stroop paradigm

Published in: Brain and Cognition, Volume 122, April 2018, 26-33 Abstract “One of the most important structural changes that occur in the brain during the course of life relates to the corpus callosum, the largest neural pathway that connects the two cerebral hemispheres. It has been shown that the corpus callosum, and in particular its anterior sections, endures a process of degeneration in ageing. Hence, a primary question is whether such structural changes in the brain of older adults have functional consequences on inter-hemispheric communication. In particular, whether the atrophy of the corpus callosum in ageing may lead to a higher… Read More

Association of the N100 TMS-evoked potential with attentional processes: A motor cortex TMS–EEG study

Published in: Brain and Cognition, Volume 122, April 2018, 9-16 Abstract “The most thoroughly studied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-evoked electroencephalogram (EEG) potential (TEP), N100, is often defined as a measure of cortical inhibition. We explored the association of the N100 amplitude with attention in 51 young healthy adults. Navigated TMS with simultaneous EEG registering was applied over the left primary motor cortex at the intensity of 110% of the resting motor threshold. Attention was assessed with the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). We found a negative Pearson correlation (p = .023, r = −0.317) between the left centroparietal N100 amplitude and the PASAT score. Of… Read More

The impact of perceptual changes to studied items on ERP correlates of familiarity and recollection is subject to hemispheric asymmetries

Published in: Brain and Cognition, Volume 122, April 2018, 17-25 Abstract “It is still unclear which role the right hemisphere (RH) preference for perceptually specific and the left hemisphere (LH) bias towards abstract memory representations play at the level of episodic memory retrieval. When stimulus characteristics hampered the retrieval of abstract memory representations, these hemispheric asymmetries have previously only modulated event-related potential (ERP) correlates of recollection (late positive complex, LPC), but not of familiarity (FN400). In the present experiment, we used stimuli which facilitated the retrieval of abstract memory representations. With the divided visual field technique, new items, identical repetitions and… Read More

Aerobic exercise is more effective than goal-based exercise for the treatment of cognition in Parkinson’s disease

Published in: Brain and Cognition, Volume 122, April 2018, 1-8 Abstract ” Background Little is known about how different exercise modalities influence cognition in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Moreover, the focus of previous investigations on examining the effects of exercise mainly on executive functions and the exclusion of individuals with cognitive impairment may limit the potential to define exercise as a treatment for cognitive decline in PD. Objective The aim of this study was to compare the effects of aerobic and goal-based exercise on five cognitive domains in cognitively normal and impaired individuals with PD. Methods Seventy-six individuals with PD were randomly… Read More