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Category: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance

Smile! Social reward drives attention

Published in: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, Volume 44, Issue 2, 206-214 Abstract “Human social behavior is fine-tuned by interactions between individuals and their environments. Here we show that social motivation plays an important role in this process. Using a novel manipulation of social reward that included elements of real-life social exchanges, we demonstrate the emergence of attentional orienting for coincidental spatial associations that received positive social reward. After an interaction with the experimenter, participants completed a computerized task in which they received positive, negative, or no social reward for their performance to spatially congruent, spatially incongruent, and… Read More

You said you would! The predictability of other’s behavior from their intentions determines predictive biases in action perception

Published in: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, Volume 44, Issue 2, 320-335 Abstract “The perception of an action is shifted farther along the observed trajectory if the observer has prior knowledge of the actor’s intention. This intention-action prediction effect is explained by predictive perception models, wherein sensory input is interpreted in light of expectancies. This study altered the precision of the prediction by varying the predictability of the action from the intention, to increase/decrease the predictive perceptual bias. Participants heard an actor state an intention (“I’ll take it”/“I’ll leave it”) before the actor reached or withdrew from an… Read More

The average facial expression of a crowd influences impressions of individual expressions

Published in: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, Volume 44, Issue 2, 311-319 Abstract “People can accurately assess the “mood of a crowd” by rapidly extracting the average intensity of all the individual expressions, when the crowd consists of a set of faces comprising different expressions of the same individual. Here, we investigate the processes involved when people judge the expression intensity of individual faces that appear in the context of a more naturalistic crowd of different individuals’ faces. We show that judgments of the intensity of happy and angry expressions for individual faces are biased toward the group… Read More

Working memory load and the retro-cue effect: A diffusion model account

Published in: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, Volume 44, Issue 2, 286-310 Abstract “Retro-cues (i.e., cues presented between the offset of a memory array and the onset of a probe) have consistently been found to enhance performance in working memory tasks, sometimes ameliorating the deleterious effects of increased memory load. However, the mechanism by which retro-cues exert their influence remains a matter of debate. To inform this debate, we applied a hierarchical diffusion model to data from 4 change detection experiments using single item, location-specific probes (i.e., a local recognition task) with either visual or verbal memory stimuli.… Read More

Combined effects of form- and meaning-based predictability on perceived clarity of speech

Published in: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, Volume 44, Issue 2, 277-285 Abstract “The perceptual clarity of speech is influenced by more than just the acoustic quality of the sound; it also depends on contextual support. For example, a degraded sentence is perceived to be clearer when the content of the speech signal is provided with matching text (i.e., form-based predictability) before hearing the degraded sentence. Here, we investigate whether sentence-level semantic coherence (i.e., meaning-based predictability), enhances perceptual clarity of degraded sentences, and if so, whether the mechanism is the same as that underlying enhancement by matching text.… Read More

Identifying the locus of compatibility-based backward crosstalk: Evidence from an extended PRP paradigm

Published in: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, Volume 44, Issue 2, 261-276 Abstract “The backward crosstalk effect (BCE) in dual tasking means that characteristics of Task 2 of 2 subsequently performed tasks influence Task 1 performance. This observation indicates that certain features of the second response are already activated to some degree before the first response is selected. Therefore, the BCE challenges bottleneck models, which assume that Task 2 response selection does not begin until Task 1 response selection is finished. Instead, an extended model with a capacity-unlimited response activation stage prior to the bottleneck as the locus… Read More

Beyond opponent coding of facial identity: Evidence for an additional channel tuned to the average face

Published in: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, Volume 44, Issue 2, 243-260 Abstract “Face identity can be represented in a multidimensional space centered on the average. It has been argued that the average acts as a perceptual norm, with the norm coded implicitly by balanced activation in pairs of channels that respond to opposite extremes of face dimensions (two-channel model). In Experiment 1 we used face identity aftereffects to distinguish this model from a narrow-band multichannel model with no norm. We show that as adaptors become more extreme, aftereffects initially increase sharply and then plateau. Crucially there is… Read More

Are goal states represented during kinematic imitation?

Published in: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, Volume 44, Issue 2, 226-242 Abstract “A number of studies have shown that observation of another person’s actions can modulate one’s own actions, such as when 2 individuals cooperate in order to complete a joint task. However, little is known about whether or not direct matching of specific movements is modulated by the goals of the actions observed. In a series of 7 experiments, we employed an action observation paradigm in which 2 coactors sat opposite each other and took turns to reach out to targets presented on a shared workspace.… Read More

Decision-making training reduces the attentional blink

Published in: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, Volume 44, Issue 2, 195-205 Abstract “Practice or training on a particular task often yields gains for the trained task; however, the extent to which these benefits generalize to other stimuli/tasks is contentious. It has been suggested that behavioral decision-making/response selection training may enhance temporal visual attention, as measured using the attentional blink (AB) paradigm. Here, we show that AB can indeed be reduced through response selection training, which requires repeatedly performing a speeded decision-making task. Training gains garnered by this approach transferred to distinct AB measures, but not to unrelated… Read More

Introspection of subjective feelings is sensitive and specific

Published in: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, Volume 44, Issue 2, 215-225 Abstract “Conversely to behaviorist ideas, recent studies suggest that introspection can be accurate and reliable. However, an unresolved question is whether people are able to report specific aspects of their phenomenal experience, or whether they report more general nonspecific experiences. To address this question, we investigated the sensitivity and validity of our introspection for different types of conflict. Taking advantage of the congruency sequence effect, we dissociated response conflict while keeping visual conflict unchanged in a Stroop and in a priming task. Participants were subsequently asked… Read More