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Category: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Timing a week later: The role of long-term memory in temporal preparation

Published in: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, Volume 24, Issue 6, December 2017, 1900-1905 Abstract “Temporal preparation has been investigated extensively by manipulating the foreperiod, the interval between a warning stimulus and target stimulus requiring a speeded response. Although such research has revealed many effects of both the duration and distribution of foreperiods on reaction times, the underlying cognitive mechanism is still largely unknown. Here, we test a recent proposal that temporal preparation is driven by the retrieval of memory traces of past experiences from long-term memory rather than by knowledge about upcoming events. Two groups of participants received different foreperiod distributions… Read More

Reconstructing the recent visual past: Hierarchical knowledge-based effects in visual working memory

Published in: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, Volume 24, Issue 6, December 2017, 1889-1899 Abstract “This paper presents two experiments that examine the influence of multiple levels of knowledge on visual working memory (VWM). Experiment 1 focused on memory for faces. Faces were selected from continua that were constructed by morphing two face photographs in 100 steps; half of the continua morphed a famous face into an unfamiliar one, while the other half used two unfamiliar faces. Participants studied six sequentially presented faces each from a different continuum, and at test they had to locate one of these within its continuum. Experiment 2examined immediate memory… Read More

The effect of character contextual diversity on eye movements in Chinese sentence reading

Published in: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, Volume 24, Issue 6, December 2017, 1971-1979 Abstract “Chen, Huang, et al. (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 2017) found that when reading two-character Chinese words embedded in sentence contexts, contextual diversity (CD), a measure of the proportion of texts in which a word appears, affected fixation times to words. When CD is controlled, however, frequency did not affect reading times. Two experiments used the same experimental designs to examine whether there are frequency effects of the first character of two-character words when CD is controlled. In Experiment 1, yoked triples of characters from a control group, a group… Read More

The time course of morphological processing during spoken word recognition in Chinese

Published in: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, Volume 24, Issue 6, December 2017, 1957-1963 Abstract “We investigated the time course of morphological processing during spoken word recognition using the printed-word paradigm. Chinese participants were asked to listen to a spoken disyllabic compound word while simultaneously viewing a printed-word display. Each visual display consisted of three printed words: a semantic associate of the first constituent of the compound word (morphemic competitor), a semantic associate of the whole compound word (whole-word competitor), and an unrelated word (distractor). Participants were directed to detect whether the spoken target word was on the visual display. Results indicated… Read More

Revisiting the role of language in spatial cognition: Categorical perception of spatial relations in English and Korean speakers

Published in: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, Volume 24, Issue 6, December 2017, 2031-2036 Abstract “The spatial relation of support has been regarded as universally privileged in nonlinguistic cognition and immune to the influence of language. English, but not Korean, obligatorily distinguishes support from nonsupport via basic spatial terms. Despite this linguistic difference, previous research suggests that English and Korean speakers show comparable nonlinguistic sensitivity to the support/nonsupport distinction. Here, using a paradigm previously found to elicit cross-language differences in color discrimination, we provide evidence for a difference in sensitivity to support/nonsupport between native English speakers and native Korean speakers who were… Read More

The puzzle of study time allocation for the most challenging items

Published in: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, Volume 24, Issue 6, December 2017, 2003-2011 Abstract “Learners often allocate more study time to challenging items than to easier ones. Nevertheless, both predicted and actual memory performance are typically worse for difficult than for easier items. The resulting inverse relations between people’s predictions of their memory performance (judgments of learning; JOLs) and self-paced study time (ST) are often explained by bottom-up, data-driven ST allocation that is based on fluency. However, we demonstrate robust inverted U-shaped relations between JOLs and ST that cannot be explained by data-driven ST allocation alone. Consequently, we explored how two… Read More

Maintenance of memory for melodies: Articulation or attentional refreshing?

Published in: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, Volume 24, Issue 6, December 2017, 1964-1970 Abstract “Past research on the effects of articulatory suppression on working memory for nonverbal sounds has been characterized by discrepant findings, which suggests that multiple mechanisms may be involved in the rehearsal of nonverbal sounds. In two experiments we examined the potential roles of two theoretical mechanisms of verbal working memory—articulatory rehearsal and attentional refreshing—in the maintenance of memory for short melodies. In both experiments, participants performed a same–different melody comparison task. During an 8-s retention interval, interference tasks were introduced to suppress articulatory rehearsal, attentional refreshing, or… Read More

The Perceptual Basis of Vast Space

Published in: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, Volume 24, Issue 6, December 2017, 1870-1878 Abstract ““Vast” is a word often applied to environmental terrain that is perceived to have large spatial extent. This judgment is made even at viewing distances where traditional metric depth cues are not useful. This paper explores the perceptual basis of vast experience, including reliability and visual precursors. Experiment 1 demonstrated strong agreement in ratings of the spatial extent of two-dimensional (2D) scene images by participants in two countries under very different viewing conditions. Image categories labeled “vast” often exemplified scene attributes of ruggedness and openness (Oliva & Torralba, 2001). Experiment 2 quantitatively… Read More

Meeting the challenge of the Psychonomic Society’s 2012 Guidelines on Statistical Issues: Some success and some room for improvement

Published in: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, Volume 24, Issue 6, December 2017, 2037-2043 Abstract “The Psychonomic Society (PS) adopted New Statistical Guidelines for Journals of the Psychonomic Society in November 2012. To evaluate changes in statistical reporting within and outside PS journals, we examined all empirical papers published in PS journals and in the Experimental Psychology Society journal, The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology(QJEP), in 2013 and 2015, to describe these populations before and after effects of the Guidelines. Comparisons of the 2013 and 2015 PS papers reveal differences associated with the Guidelines, and QJEP provides a baseline of papers to reflect changes in… Read More

Aging enhances cognitive biases to friends but not the self

Published in: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, Volume 24, Issue 6, December 2017, 2021-2030 Abstract “We measured changes in self and friend biases in perceptual matching in young and older participants. Participants learned associations between neutral geometric shapes and three personal labels (You, Friend, or Stranger), representing themselves, their named best friend, and a stranger not corresponding to anyone they knew. They then responded whether the shapes and labels matched or mismatched. In addition, participants reported the perceived personal distance between themselves, their best friend, and a stranger. Relative to young participants, older adults showed an increased bias toward matching their friends over strangers,… Read More