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Tag: Attention

The effects of extinction-aroused attention on context conditioning

Published in: Learning & Memory, Volume 25, Issue 4, 165-175 Abstract “Two experiments assessed the effects of extinguishing a conditioned cue on subsequent context conditioning. Each experiment used a different video-game method where sensors predicted attacking spaceships and participants responded to the sensor in a way that prepared them for the upcoming attack. In Experiment 1 extinction of a cue which signaled a spaceship-attack outcome facilitated subsequent learning when the attack occurred unsignaled. In Experiment 2 extinction of a cue facilitated subsequent learning, regardless of whether the spaceship outcome was the same or different as used in the earlier training. In… Read More

Control Changes the Way We Look at the World

Published in: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 30, Issue 4, April 2018, 603-619 Abstract “The feeling of control is a fundamental aspect of human experience and accompanies our voluntary actions all the time. However, how the sense of control interacts with wider perception, cognition, and behavior remains poorly understood. This study focused on how controlling an external object influences the allocation of attention. Experiment 1 examined attention to an object that is under a different level of control from the others. Participants searched for a target among multiple distractors on screen. All the distractors were partially under the participant’s control (50%… Read More

Task-residual functional connectivity of language and attention networks

Published in: Brain and Cognition, Volume 122, April 2018, 52-58 Abstract “Functional connectivity using task-residual data capitalizes on remaining variance after mean task-related signal is removed from a time series. The degree of network specificity in language and attention domains featured by task-residual and resting-state data types were compared. Functional connectivity based on task-residual data evidenced stronger laterality of the language and attention connections and thus greater network specificity compared to resting-state functional connectivity of the same connections. Covariance between network nodes of task-residuals may thus reflect the degree to which two regions are coordinated in their specific activity, rather than… Read More

Association of the N100 TMS-evoked potential with attentional processes: A motor cortex TMS–EEG study

Published in: Brain and Cognition, Volume 122, April 2018, 9-16 Abstract “The most thoroughly studied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-evoked electroencephalogram (EEG) potential (TEP), N100, is often defined as a measure of cortical inhibition. We explored the association of the N100 amplitude with attention in 51 young healthy adults. Navigated TMS with simultaneous EEG registering was applied over the left primary motor cortex at the intensity of 110% of the resting motor threshold. Attention was assessed with the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). We found a negative Pearson correlation (p = .023, r = −0.317) between the left centroparietal N100 amplitude and the PASAT score. Of… Read More

How Does Rumination Impact Cognition? A First Mechanistic Model

Published in: Topics in Cognitive Science, Volume 10, Issue 1, 175-191 Abstract “Rumination is a process of uncontrolled, narrowly focused negative thinking that is often self‐referential, and that is a hallmark of depression. Despite its importance, little is known about its cognitive mechanisms. Rumination can be thought of as a specific, constrained form of mind‐wandering. Here, we introduce a cognitive model of rumination that we developed on the basis of our existing model of mind‐wandering. The rumination model implements the hypothesis that rumination is caused by maladaptive habits of thought. These habits of thought are modeled by adjusting the number of… Read More

The Awakening of the Attention: Evidence for a Link Between the Monitoring of Mind Wandering and Prospective Goals

Published in: Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Volume 147, Issue 3, 431-443 Abstract “Across 2 independent samples, we examined the relation between individual differences in rates of self-caught mind wandering and individual differences in temporal monitoring of an unrelated response goal. Rates of self-caught mind wandering were assessed during a commonly used sustained-attention task, and temporal goal monitoring was indexed during a well-established prospective-memory task. The results from both samples showed a positive relation between rates of self-caught mind wandering during the sustained-attention task and rates of checking a clock to monitor the amount of time remaining before a response was… Read More

Smile! Social reward drives attention

Published in: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, Volume 44, Issue 2, 206-214 Abstract “Human social behavior is fine-tuned by interactions between individuals and their environments. Here we show that social motivation plays an important role in this process. Using a novel manipulation of social reward that included elements of real-life social exchanges, we demonstrate the emergence of attentional orienting for coincidental spatial associations that received positive social reward. After an interaction with the experimenter, participants completed a computerized task in which they received positive, negative, or no social reward for their performance to spatially congruent, spatially incongruent, and… Read More

Working memory load and the retro-cue effect: A diffusion model account

Published in: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, Volume 44, Issue 2, 286-310 Abstract “Retro-cues (i.e., cues presented between the offset of a memory array and the onset of a probe) have consistently been found to enhance performance in working memory tasks, sometimes ameliorating the deleterious effects of increased memory load. However, the mechanism by which retro-cues exert their influence remains a matter of debate. To inform this debate, we applied a hierarchical diffusion model to data from 4 change detection experiments using single item, location-specific probes (i.e., a local recognition task) with either visual or verbal memory stimuli.… Read More

Are goal states represented during kinematic imitation?

Published in: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, Volume 44, Issue 2, 226-242 Abstract “A number of studies have shown that observation of another person’s actions can modulate one’s own actions, such as when 2 individuals cooperate in order to complete a joint task. However, little is known about whether or not direct matching of specific movements is modulated by the goals of the actions observed. In a series of 7 experiments, we employed an action observation paradigm in which 2 coactors sat opposite each other and took turns to reach out to targets presented on a shared workspace.… Read More

Decision-making training reduces the attentional blink

Published in: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, Volume 44, Issue 2, 195-205 Abstract “Practice or training on a particular task often yields gains for the trained task; however, the extent to which these benefits generalize to other stimuli/tasks is contentious. It has been suggested that behavioral decision-making/response selection training may enhance temporal visual attention, as measured using the attentional blink (AB) paradigm. Here, we show that AB can indeed be reduced through response selection training, which requires repeatedly performing a speeded decision-making task. Training gains garnered by this approach transferred to distinct AB measures, but not to unrelated… Read More