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Tag: Eye Movements

More far is more right: Manual and ocular line bisections, but not the Judd illusion, depend on radial space

Published in: Brain and Cognition, Volume 122, April 2018, 34-43 Abstract “Line bisection studies generally find a left-to-right shift in bisection bias with increasing distance between the observer and the target line, which may be explained by hemispheric differences in the processing of proximo-distal information. In the present study, the segregation between near and far space was further characterized across the motor system and contextual cues. To this aim, 20 right-handed participants were required to perform a manual bisection task of simple lines presented at three different distances (60, 90, 120 cm). Importantly, the horizontal spatial location of the line was manipulated… Read More

Beyond cloze probability: Parafoveal processing of semantic and syntactic information during reading

Published in: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 100, June 2018, 1-17 Abstract “Theories of eye movement control in reading assume that early oculomotordecisions are determined by a word’s frequency and cloze probability. This assumption is challenged by evidence that readers are sensitive to the contextual plausibility of an upcoming word: First-pass fixation probability and duration are reduced when the parafoveal preview is a plausible, but unpredictable, word relative to an implausible word. The present study sought to establish whether the source of this effect is sensitivity to violations of syntactic acceptability. In two experiments, the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm was used to compare contextually… Read More

Building an ACT‐R Reader for Eye‐Tracking Corpus Data

Published in: Topics in Cognitive Science, Volume 10, Issue 1, 144-160 Abstract “Cognitive architectures have often been applied to data from individual experiments. In this paper, I develop an ACT‐R reader that can model a much larger set of data, eye‐tracking corpus data. It is shown that the resulting model has a good fit to the data for the considered low‐level processes. Unlike previous related works (most prominently, Engelmann, Vasishth, Engbert & Kliegl, 2013 ), the model achieves the fit by estimating free parameters of ACT‐R using Bayesian estimation and Markov‐Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques, rather than by relying on the mix of… Read More

Performance in a Collaborative Search Task: The Role of Feedback and Alignment

Published in: Topics in Cognitive Science, Volume 10, Issue 1, 55-79 Abstract “When people communicate, they coordinate a wide range of linguistic and non‐linguistic behaviors. This process of coordination is called alignment, and it is assumed to be fundamental to successful communication. In this paper, we question this assumption and investigate whether disalignment is a more successful strategy in some cases. More specifically, we hypothesize that alignment correlates with task success only when communication is interactive. We present results from a spot‐the‐difference task in which dyads of interlocutors have to decide whether they are viewing the same scene or not. Interactivity… Read More

Covert shifts of attention can account for the functional role of “eye movements to nothing”

Published in: Memory & Cognition, Volume 46, Issue 2, 230-243 Abstract “When trying to remember verbal information from memory, people look at spatial locations that have been associated with visual stimuli during encoding, even when the visual stimuli are no longer present. It has been shown that such “eye movements to nothing” can influence retrieval performance for verbal information, but the mechanism underlying this functional relationship is unclear. More precisely, covert in comparison to overt shifts of attention could be sufficient to elicit the observed differences in retrieval performance. To test if covert shifts of attention explain the functional role of… Read More

Attending globally or locally: Incidental learning of optimal visual attention allocation

Published in: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, Volume 44, Issue 3, 387-398 Abstract “Attention allocation determines the information that is encoded into memory. Can participants learn to optimally allocate attention based on what types of information are most likely to change? The current study examined whether participants could incidentally learn that changes to either high spatial frequency (HSF) or low spatial frequency (LSF) Gabor patches were more probable and to use this incidentally learned probability information to bias attention during encoding. Participants detected changes in orientation in arrays of 6 Gabor patches: 3 HSF and 3 LSF. For… Read More

What are the costs of degraded parafoveal previews during silent reading?

Published in: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, Volume 44, Issue 3, 371-386 Abstract “It has been suggested that the preview benefit effect is actually a combination of preview benefit and preview costs. Marx et al. (2015) proposed that visually degrading the parafoveal preview reduces the costs associated with traditional parafoveal letter masks used in the boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975), thus leading to a more neutral baseline. We report 2 experiments of skilled adults reading silently. In Experiment 1, we found no compelling evidence that degraded previews reduced processing costs associated with traditional letter masks. Moreover, participants were highly… Read More

The effect of character contextual diversity on eye movements in Chinese sentence reading

Published in: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, Volume 24, Issue 6, December 2017, 1971-1979 Abstract “Chen, Huang, et al. (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 2017) found that when reading two-character Chinese words embedded in sentence contexts, contextual diversity (CD), a measure of the proportion of texts in which a word appears, affected fixation times to words. When CD is controlled, however, frequency did not affect reading times. Two experiments used the same experimental designs to examine whether there are frequency effects of the first character of two-character words when CD is controlled. In Experiment 1, yoked triples of characters from a control group, a group… Read More

Print exposure modulates the effects of repetition priming during sentence reading

Published in: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, Volume 24, Issue 6, December 2017, 1935-1942 Abstract “Individual readers vary greatly in the quality of their lexical representations, and consequently in how quickly and efficiently they can access orthographic and lexical knowledge. This variability may be explained, at least in part, by individual differences in exposure to printed language, because practice at reading promotes the development of stronger reading skills. In the present eyetracking experiment, we tested the hypothesis that the efficiency of word recognition during reading improves with increases in print exposure, by determining whether the magnitude of the repetition-priming effect is modulated… Read More

An eye movement corpus study of the age-of-acquisition effect

Published in: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, Volume 24, Issue 6, December 2017, 1915-1921 Abstract “In the present study, we investigated the effects of word-level age of acquisition (AoA) on natural reading. Previous studies, using multiple language modalities, showed that earlier-learned words are recognized, read, spoken, and responded to faster than words learned later in life. Until now, in visual word recognition the experimental materials were limited to single-word or sentence studies. We analyzed the data of the Ghent Eye-tracking Corpus (GECO; Cop, Dirix, Drieghe, & Duyck, in press), an eyetracking corpus of participants reading an entire novel, resulting in the first eye… Read More