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Tag: Major Depressive Disorder

How Does Rumination Impact Cognition? A First Mechanistic Model

Published in: Topics in Cognitive Science, Volume 10, Issue 1, 175-191 Abstract “Rumination is a process of uncontrolled, narrowly focused negative thinking that is often self‐referential, and that is a hallmark of depression. Despite its importance, little is known about its cognitive mechanisms. Rumination can be thought of as a specific, constrained form of mind‐wandering. Here, we introduce a cognitive model of rumination that we developed on the basis of our existing model of mind‐wandering. The rumination model implements the hypothesis that rumination is caused by maladaptive habits of thought. These habits of thought are modeled by adjusting the number of… Read More

Childhood maltreatment is associated with increased neural response to ambiguous threatening facial expressions in adulthood: Evidence from the late positive potential

Published in: Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, Volume 18, Issue 1, 143-154 Abstract “Childhood maltreatment increases lifetime vulnerability for psychopathology. One proposed mechanism for this association is that early maltreatment increases vigilance for and attention to subtle threat cues, persisting outside of the environment in which maltreatment occurs. To test this possibility, the present study examined neural responses to ambiguous and nonambiguous threatening facial expressions in a sample of 25 adults reporting a history of low-to-moderate levels of abuse in childhood and 46 reporting no or low levels of childhood maltreatment. The measure of neural response used was the late positive… Read More

Neural and behavioural correlates of autobiographical memory retrieval in patients with major depressive disorder and a history of trauma exposure

Published in: Neuropsychologia, Volume 110, February 2018, 148-158 Abstract “Alterations in autobiographical memory (AM) performance have been identified in major depressive disorder (MDD) and in trauma-related disorders, however, the neural and behavioural correlates of AM retrieval in patients with MDD and a co-morbid history of trauma remain unexplored. Here, we used behavioural and neuroimaging techniques to investigate AM in this patient group and in matched healthy comparison subjects (HCs). Twenty patients with MDD and trauma exposure and 20 HCs underwent fMRI scanning while recalling positive, negative, and neutral events. Participants were subsequently administered the Autobiographical Interview (Levine et al., 2002), allowing for separation of episodic… Read More

Cognitive reactivity as outcome and working mechanism of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for recurrently depressed patients in remission

Published in: Cognition and Emotion, Volume 32, Issue 2, 371-378 Abstract “Major depressive disorder is a prevalent condition with high relapse rates. There is evidence that cognitive reactivity is an important vulnerability factor for the recurrence of depression. Mindfulness-based interventions are designed to reduce relapse rates, with cognitive reactivity as one of the proposed working mechanisms. In a randomised controlled trial we compared the effect of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) with treatment-as-usual (TAU) on cognitive reactivity in recurrently depressed patients (N = 115). Depressive symptoms, cognitive reactivity, and mindfulness skills were assessed pre and post treatment. Patients in the MBCT group reported a… Read More