Tag: Parkinson’s Disease

Aerobic exercise is more effective than goal-based exercise for the treatment of cognition in Parkinson’s disease

Published in: Brain and Cognition, Volume 122, April 2018, 1-8 Abstract ” Background Little is known about how different exercise modalities influence cognition in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Moreover, the focus of previous investigations on examining the effects of exercise mainly on executive functions and the exclusion of individuals with cognitive impairment may limit the potential to define exercise as a treatment for cognitive decline in PD. Objective The aim of this study was to compare the effects of aerobic and goal-based exercise on five cognitive domains in cognitively normal and impaired individuals with PD. Methods Seventy-six individuals with PD were randomly… Read More

The neural exploitation hypothesis and its implications for an embodied approach to language and cognition: Insights from the study of action verbs processing and motor disorders in Parkinson’s disease

Published in: Cortex, Volume 100, March 2018, 215-225 Abstract “As it is widely known, Parkinson’s disease is clinically characterized by motor disorders such as the loss of voluntary movement control, including resting tremor, postural instability, and bradykinesia (Bocanegra et al., 2015; Helmich, Hallett, Deuschl, Toni, & Bloem, 2012; Liu et al., 2006; Rosin, Topka, & Dichgans, 1997). In the last years, many empirical studies (e.g., Bocanegra et al., 2015; Spadacenta et al., 2012) have also shown that the processing of action verbs is selectively impaired in patients affected by this neurodegenerative disorder. In the light of these findings, it has been suggested that Parkinson disorder can be interpreted within an embodied cognition framework… Read More

Production of verbs related to body movement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson’s Disease (PD)

Published in: Cortex, Volume 100, March 2018, 127-139 Abstract “Theories of grounded cognition propose that action verb knowledge relies in part on motor processing regions, including premotor cortex. Accordingly, impaired action verb knowledge in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is thought to be due to motor system degeneration. Upper motor neuron disease in ALS degrades the motor cortex and related pyramidal motor system, while disease in PD is centered in the basal ganglia and can spread to frontostriatal areas that are important to language functioning. These anatomical distinctions in disease may yield subtle differences in the action verb impairment between patient groups. Here we compare verbs where the… Read More

Parkinson’s disease compromises the appraisal of action meanings evoked by naturalistic texts

Published in: Cortex, Volume 100, March 2018, 111-126 Abstract “The linguistic profile of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by difficulties in processing units which denote bodily movements. However, the available evidence has low ecological validity, as it stems from atomistic tasks which are never encountered in real life. Here, we assessed whether such deficits also occur for meanings evoked by context-rich narratives, considering patients with and without mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI and PD-nMCI, respectively) and matched controls for each group. Participants read two naturalistic stories (an action text and a neutral text) and responded to questions tapping the appraisal of verb-related and circumstantial information. In PD-MCI, impairments… Read More

Verb naming fluency in hypokinetic and hyperkinetic movement disorders

Published in: Cortex, Volume 100, March 2018, 21-31 Abstract “Cortical motor regions are considered to play a role in action related language. These regions are affected differently in different types of movement disorders. Parkinson’s disease, a hypokinetic movement disorder, has been shown to cause action language disruptions alongside movement deficits. Action language, however, has not been investigated in primary cervical dystonia, a hyperkinetic movement disorder. The aim of this study is to investigate whether action language is affected differently in hypokinetic and hyperkinetic movement disorders which have different effects on movements. Thirty patients with Parkinson’s disease, thirty primary cervical dystonia patients and thirty healthy controls were… Read More

Word selection processing in Parkinson’s disease: When nouns are more difficult than verbs

Published in: Cortex, Volume 100, March 2018, 8-20 Abstract “Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are impaired in verb production. Interpretations range from grammatical deficits to semantic-conceptual decay of action representation. The verb production deficit in PD can also be considered a dysexecutive disorder, specifically, a deficit of selection processing during word production, due to corticostriatal damage. Producing verbs is “more difficult” than producing nouns, because verb-forms must be selected from a large set of word-forms which share the verb-root, and the set of possible verb-forms is larger than the set of possible noun-forms when a noun has to be produced. However, if we devise a condition in… Read More

The role of the motor system in action naming in patients with neurodegenerative extrapyramidal syndromes

Published in: Cortex, Volume 100, March 2018, 191-214 Abstract “Previous studies of patients with brain damage have suggested a close relationship between aphasia and movement disorders. Neurodegenerativeextrapyramidal syndromes associated with cognitive impairment provide an interesting model for studying the neural substrates of cognitive and motor symptoms. In this review, we focused on studies investigating language production abilities in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), Corticobasal Syndrome (CBS) and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP). According to some reports, these patients exhibit a reduction in performance in both action and object naming or verb production compared to healthy individuals. Furthermore, a disproportional impairment of action naming compared to object naming was systematically observed in patients with… Read More

Processing graspable object images and their nouns is impaired in Parkinson’s disease patients

Published in: Cortex, Volume 100, March 2018, 32-39 Abstract: “According to embodiment, the recruitment of the motor system is necessary to process language material expressing a motor content. Coherently, an impairment of the motor system should affect the capacity to process language items with a motor content. The aim of the present study was to assess the capacity to process graspable objects and their nouns in Parkinson’s disease(PD) patients and healthy controls. Participants saw photos and nouns depicting graspable and non-graspable objects. Scrambled images and pseudo-words served as control stimuli. At 150 msec after stimulus presentation, they had to respond when the stimulus… Read More